Monday, December 26, 2016


Provimi i Matures 2014 - Matematike e Pergjithshme (Shiko)
Provimi i Matures 2014 - Matematike Profesionale (Shiko)
Provimi i Matures 2014 - Matematika Gjuhesore

Professors and Students[edit]

King's College London, as engraved by J. C. Carter in 1831. One of the UK research universities, it is one of the two institutions who founded University of London in 1836.
Schleiermacher posits that professors, had to “reproduce [their] own realization[s]” so that students could observe the “act of creation” of knowledge.[37] That they serve as models of how to “intelligently produce knowledge”.[38] Professorship was awarded to distinguished scholars, and was rescindable only if guilty of a serious crime.[39] From the perspective of James McCain, president emeritus of Kansas State University, professors in 20th-century Europe were more prestigious and well respected than university professors in the US, for having much academic freedom, whilst keeping to formal relationships with the students.[40] Moreover, the professors’ professional role expanded from lecturing to investigating, thus research became “an integral part of the professor’s task”.[41]

The London University, by Thomas Hosmer Shepherd (1827–28), now is integral to University College London, a constituent of the University of London.
Popular access to higher education slowly began after 1914,[42] yet the principal remaining obstacle was its expense. For most of the 19th century, the UK continued affording a university education only to aristocrats, and not until the early 20th century, featuring new universities, such as the University of London, was higher education available to the mass populace.[43] Moreover, it was not until the mid-19th century that universities admitted women students, who confronted great difficulties, such as having no civil rights and societal-institutional sexism doubting their intellectual capacities and their right to participate in a university education.[44] In the event, the entrance of common students to the universities challenged the ideology of the German model, because their varied middle- and working-class backgrounds, hence different expectations, resulted in a less concretely Humboldtian university.[45]

In the 19th and 20th centuries, European university students were mostly responsible for their educations; they selected courses of study, professors did not register attendance, and only gave examinations at course’s end.[46][47] Rüegg suggests that student propensity to developing student movements, based upon contemporary politics, parallels their attitudes of intellectual freedom and social responsibility.[48]

Progressive educational and political philosophies changed religion’s role in the education imparted. During the 18th century, most universities were strongly connected to either a Catholic or a Protestant church, thus the professors’ and the students’ religion determined employment and matriculation.[49] In the 19th century, religion was deleted from the “compulsory curriculum”; in France, Napoleon’s secular Université de France troubled Roman Catholics, because it threatened their educational monopoly. To wit, the Loi Falloux (Falloux Law) of 1850 attempted to reinstate some educational power to the Roman Catholic Church, but, by then, the Université de France had de facto substantive control of French higher education.[50] Like-wise, in the UK, the new universities (i.e. the University of London), were non-denominational, and the Oxford Act of 1854 rid Oxford and Cambridge universities of required religion with a concomitant decline in chapel attendance, and of religion as integral to a university education.[51][52]

The European university legacy[edit]
Ultimately, European research universities established the intellectual and academic traditions of university education world-wide; by the 19th century’s end, the Humboldtian university model was established in Europe, the US, and Japan.[49] In the Americas, first the Spanish, then the British, and then the French founded universities in the lands they had conquered early in the 16th century,[53] meant to professionally educate their colonists and propagate monotheistic religion to establish formal, administrative rule of their American colonies; like-wise, the British in Canada, Australia, and the Cape Colony; and like-wise Japan, the Near East, and Africa. Those universities disseminated Western European science and technology and trained the local population (foremost the local elite) to develop their countries resources;[54] and, although most promoted the social, political, economic, and cultural aims of the imperial rulers, some promoted revolutionary development of the colonial societies.[55] In the 20th century, urbanization and industrialization made a university education available to the mass populace.[56] Throughout, the basic structure and research purposes of the universities have remained constant; per Clark Kerr, they “are among the least changed of institutions”.[57]