Friday, February 10, 2017

United States[edit]

In the USA, the majority of fellowships are accredited by the ACGME Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education. There are a few programs that are not accredited as well, and are actually well received given that it is more important to be board certified for the primary specialty as a physician, and fellowship quality is often more based on research productivity.[1]

ACGME Fellowships[edit]
The following are organized based on specialty required for the fellowship.

Internal Medicine or Pediatrics[edit]
Infectious disease
Critical care medicine
Over recent years, there has been an increasing number of integrated programs, allowing for faster completion of long residencies (eg thoracic surgery integrated lasts 6 years instead of the 8 it would otherwise take).

Maternal Fetal Medicine
Minimally Invasive Gyn Surgery
Pediatric and Adolescent Gyn
Reproductive Endocrinology[2]
Medical retina
Oculoplastic and reconstructive surgery
Vitreoretinal surgery
Sports Medicine

Foot and Ankle
Joint replacement
Female Pelvic Medicine and Reconstructive Surgery
Clinical Informatics
Hospice and Palliative Medicine
Interventional Radiology
Sleep medicine
Sports medicine
Transplant hepatology
Combined fellowships[edit]
There are a number of programs offering a combined fellowship, training in two or more sub-specialties as part of a single program.

Pulmonary/Critical Care: this type of program is more common than Pulmonary Disease (non-combination) programs. As of 2007, there were 130 ACGME-accredited combined Pulmonary/Critical Care programs while only 25 programs for Pulmonary Disease alone.
Hematology/Oncology: as of 2005, there were 125 ACGME-accredited programs for Hematology-Oncology, while only 12 programs for Hematology alone and 18 for Oncology alone.
Geriatrics/Oncology: the American Board of Internal Medicine approved a 3-year combined fellowship training program in medical oncology and geriatrics. The John A. Hartford Foundation initially funded 10 institutions for this type of training.

In Australia, medical graduates must complete one year in an accredited hospital post prior to receiving full registration; this year of conditional registration is known as the intern year.[1] An internship is completed not necessarily in a hospital at the same state as the graduate's medical school. This indeed depends on personal factors as well as professional career aspirations.

In Brazil, medical school consists of six years or twelve semesters; the final two years (or one and a half year, depending on the University in question) are said to be the internship. During this time, students will undergo extensive hospital hours and do basic hospital work while supervised by both residents and staff. Usually, this period is divided among Internal Medicine, Surgery, Gynecology and Obstetrics, Pediatrics, Emergency Medicine, Family Medicine and a final elective period in which the student may choose an area to in which to gain further experience. Upon conclusion of internship, the student graduates to a doctor, and may then work unsupervised or enter a residency program in order to gain a specialty.

After High School, medical course in Chile consists in 7 years, having 5 years as a medical student and 2 years as an intern to obtain the degree of M├ędico Cirujano (the equivalent of General Practitioner in the USA). Internships should at least include the 4 basic specialties (Internal Medicine, General Surgery, Gynecology and Obstetrics and Pediatrics) throughout this period. After completing the internship, the new physician may work in primary care, hospitals or apply to residencies for a specialty.

DR Congo[edit]
DR Congo has a 2 years internship program for public health schools.[citation needed] Many hospitals employ Doctors prior to their full registration with the medical council (CNOM).[citation needed]

After finishing high school, students have the possibility to apply to medical school. Medical school generally consist of 5 years of medical school and one year of internship, through which the student rotate through different surgical and clinical specialties. After this, the student gets the title of Medical Doctor (according to US degrees). Additionally, there is one compulsory year of community medicine in order to obtain the medical register and licence from the Public Health Ministry (MSP). After this, the MD has the possibility to do residency or apply to a specialty.

In Egypt, after medical students complete their six years of studies, they require one year of Internship or Clerkship Training in a University or Teaching Hospital. During this year, the student must complete two month rotations in each General Surgery, Internal Medicine, Paediatrics and Obstetrics/Gynaecology. They also must complete one month rotations of their choice in each a sub-specialty of Surgery, sub-specialty of Internal Medicine, Anesthesiology and ER medicine. Once the student has completed their Internship they are awarded a Bachelor of Medicine and Surgery (MBBCh). There are also two years of mandatory service in an underserved area. If the Medical graduate fails to complete these two years they are not allowed to work in a University or Teaching Hospital and can only work in a Private Hospital or Clinic.

The housemanship (internship period) is a two - year period after graduating from medical school during which newly qualified doctors, practice under supervision in designated hospitals in the country. This involves six (6) month rotations each in Medicine, Surgery, Obstetrics and Gynaecology and Paediatrics in no particular order. Alternatively, a houseman may opt for a rotation in Anaesthesia or Psychiatry in place of one of the traditional four rotation areas. During this period the houseman (intern) is given provisional registration status with the Ghana Medical and Dental Council and would only be granted full registration status after successfully completing the housemanship. They then assume the rank of Medical Officer (M.O.).

Main article: Compulsory Rotatory Residential Internship
After four and half years of medical school (degree of MBBS) every doctor in India has to go through a one-year compulsory rotatory internship in various specialities to get permanent registration in Medical Council of India as a physician. Only after getting permanently registered with MCI, one is licensed to practice medicine as a primary care doctor throughout the India.
Dental sciences students too undergo compulsory internships for one year without which degree requirements are not considered full and professional license to practise is not entrusted to an individual.

In Iran, internship is an 18-month period at the end of the 7 year medical education which should be done in the university hospitals. Then, medical students can graduate and work independently as a Medical Doctor (MD) or participate in National Comprehensive Residency Exam and continue to study in desired specialty. If they decide to work as a General Practitioner, they should first do their compulsory service for a period, regarding their national service or their individual status, in underserved areas recognized by Iranian Ministry of Health, as part of the commitments to the ministry. Medical Internship offers a schedule that rotates through all the major and minor specialties, including emergency medicine, internal medicine, obstetrics & gynecology, pediatrics, surgery, dermatology, ophthalmology, otorhinolaryngology, infectious diseases, and psychiatry.

In Iraq, after graduation from a 6 years medical program, graduates start their internship in hospitals. The medical intern must finish a period of 3 months in each of the specialities of internal medicine, obstetrics and gynaecology, surgery, psychiatry and pediatrics. Also, they work for variable periods of time in some of the subspecialties as assigned]. Each speciality is given in particular courses of 3 months, after completion of internship doctors are eligible to practice independently. According to the above definition of internship, interns have a degree but they are not fully licensed to practice medicine unsupervised. Currently the duration of Internship is 2 years in the north of Iraq ( kurdistan region) and 1 year in the mid and south of Iraq

Republic of Ireland[edit]
In order to register fully with the Irish Medical Council, graduates are required to complete twelve months of training in an approved public hospital. Internship comprises at least one surgical rotation and at least one medical rotation. A minimum of two months and a maximum of three months may be spent in another speciality, including emergency medicine, general practice, obstetrics & gynaecology, paediatrics, psychiatry, anaesthesia and radiology.

After completion of the internship, doctors obtain a certificate of satisfactory service. Upon receipt of the certificate, the Medical Council will entitle the provisionally registered doctor to apply for full registration in the General Register of Medical Practitioners, subject to payment of a fee.[2]

In Israel, medical graduates must complete one year in an accredited hospital prior to receiving full registration; this year of conditional registration is known as the intern year.[3] Some residencies start at the second year (PGY-2), including Anesthesia, Radiology, Physical medicine and rehabilitation, and Neurology. There are two kinds of internships outside the context of a "categorical" residency:

"Prelim" internships are done in either internal medicine or surgery. Interns spend 12 months focusing on either internal medicine or surgery.
"Transitional internships" or "traditional rotating internships", offer a schedule that rotates through all the major specialties, including emergency medicine, family practice, internal medicine, obstetrics/gynecology, pediatrics, and surgery.
Some applicants prefer transitional year programs because they generally are not as strenuous as a "prel year". However, a prelim year can provide better preparation for the second year of residency.

In Jordan, after finishing medical school (6 years), medical students receive the M.D. degree but may only practice medicine after working in a hospital for 12 months. After completion of this year of hospital work, the student will be licensed to work as a GP.

In Lebanon, universities like the American University of Beirut (AUB), the University of Balamand (UOB), or the Lebanese American University (LAU), follow the curriculum similar to that of universities in the US. But other universities, that follow the French (European) system like Universite Saint Joseph (USJ) follow the French curriculum, this excludes for example Pre-medical studies (BS in science), instead the student is directly enrolled in a 7-year program during which he studies science and medicine.